Embryo transfer is a technique in which a mare (donor) conceives through natural or artificial insemination and the embryo is flushed from the uterus before it implants. The embryo is then introduced into the uterus of another mare (recipient) where it implants and matures.
Gender in horses is determined by the sex chromosomes inherited from a foal’s parents. Chromosomes carried in the sex cells carry DNA that holds the blueprint for a developing embryo.
Granulosa-theca cell tumors can affect any mare but are most common in mares from five to 10 years old. Mares of all breeds may be affected.
Horses have eight major blood groups but more than 30 variations within these groups. Most of the time, blood groups are not an issue, but one exception, neonatal isoerythrolysis (NI), is important. This condition can be fatal to newborn foals.
Eastern tent caterpillars are dispersing from wild cherry trees and may be found on fences, barn surfaces, and grass blades in central Kentucky.
While animals of many species routinely give birth to multiple healthy offspring from one pregnancy, horses are not designed to nourish two fetuses and produce viable twin foals. Double pregnancies put the mare and both foals at risk, and good outcomes are rare.
In some mares, a placental infectioncan interfere with proper functioning of the placenta, and the result may be loss of pregnancy or premature delivery of the foal.
Dystocia, or difficult delivery of a foal, is more common in three-year-old draft mares compared to more mature mares of the same breeding, according to a study conducted in France.
In horses, spaying is not common, and means removing the ovaries rather than the uterus and ovaries as in dogs and cats. Although owners generally learn to accept that their mares may show some behavioral and personality changes during heat periods, spaying is an option for mares with particular problems.
Uterine infection is one of the most common reasons for infertility, but there are other reasons why mares might fail to conceive, including obesity and equine metabolic syndrome.
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